OBJECTIVE To prospectively assess the feasibility for discharge 10 h after a porcine dermal pubovaginal sling procedure (PVS), to examine the surgical factors (postoperative complications) affecting discharge, and to measure the short-term cure rate for stress urinary incontinence (SUI). PATIENTS AND METHODS Between June 2003 and December 2003, 40 consecutive patients with SUI and scheduled for treatment using a porcine dermal sling were enrolled in this prospective study. Patients were admitted with a planned overnight stay and returned to the ward with no urinary catheter. Outcome measures were bladder emptying efficiency (EE) at 10 h after surgery, time intervals to the first three spontaneous voids, EE of the first three voids, time required to achieve an EE of >= 75%, a visual analogue scale pain score, perioperative complications, and short-term cure rate of SUI. Patients were considered suitable for discharge from hospital when the EE was >= 75% or when they were self-catheterizing confidently with adequate pain control and no significant complication. All patients were followed for 6 months. RESULTS The median EE at 10 h was 61%; 16 patients (40%) achieved efficient emptying and were suitable for discharge 10 h after surgery. The median intervals to the first three spontaneous voids were 7, 10 and 17 h, and the median EEs for the first three voids 46%, 61% and 75%. The median visual analogue scale pain score was 3.5. Patients with intrinsic sphincter deficiency (ISD) were significantly less likely to achieve efficient emptying at 10 h (39% vs 70%). Overall SUI was cured or improved in 90% of patients at the 6-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS In the present study only 40% of patients were suitable for day-case sling surgery. Early bladder emptying inefficiency was the main limiting factor. Exclusion of patients with ISD and possibly decreasing the EE threshold to 50% would improve the discharge rate. The short-term results of this PVS are similar to those obtained with the autologous fascial sling.