Peer-Reviewed Journal Details
Mandatory Fields
Kollamaram, G;Croker, DM;Walker, GM;Goyanes, A;Basit, AW;Gaisford, S
2018
July
International journal of pharmaceutics
Low temperature fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing of thermolabile drugs
Published
140 ()
Optional Fields
IMMEDIATE-RELEASE TABLETS SOLID-STATE NMR DOSAGE FORMS DELIVERY SYSTEMS PHARMACEUTICAL EXCIPIENTS MELT EXTRUSION FABRICATION THERMOMETER MEDICINES DEVICES
545
144
152
Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is the most commonly investigated 3D printing technology for the manufacture of personalized medicines, however, the high temperatures used in the process limit its wider application. The objective of this study was to print low-melting and thermolabile drugs by reducing the FDM printing temperature. Two immediate release polymers, Kollidon VA64 and Kollidon 12PF were investigated as potential candidates for low-temperature FDM printing. Ramipril was used as the model low melting temperature drug (109 degrees C); to the authors' knowledge this is the lowest melting point drug investigated to date by FDM printing. Filaments loaded with 3% drug were obtained by hot melt extrusion at 70 degrees C and ramipril printlets with a dose equivalent of 8.8 mg were printed at 90 degrees C. HPLC analysis confirmed that the drug was stable with no signs of degradation and dissolution studies revealed that drug release from the printlets reached 100% within 20-30 min. Variable temperature Raman and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) spectroscopy techniques were used to evaluate drug stability over the processing temperature range. These data indicated that ramipril did not undergo degradation below its melting point (which is above the processing temperature range: 70-90 degrees C) but it was transformed into the impurity diketopiperazine upon exposure to temperatures higher than its melting point. The use of the excipients Kollidon VA64 and Kollidon 12PF in FDM was further validated by printing with the drug 4-aminosalicylic acid (4-ASA), which in previous work was reported to undergo degradation in FDM printing, but here it was found to be stable. This work demonstrates that the selection and use of new excipients can overcome one of the major disadvantages in FDM printing, drug degradation due to thermal heating, making this technology suitable for drugs with lower melting temperatures.
AMSTERDAM
0378-5173
10.1016/j.ijpharm.2018.04.055
Grant Details