© 2019, The Author(s). Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine secular trends in vigorous physical activity (VPA) among adolescents in relation to family affluence across 34 countries. Methods: This study used data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study from 34 countries in Europe and North America. Adolescents (N = 501,647) aged 11, 13 and 15 years across three survey cycles (2006, 2010, 2014) self-reported data on VPA and a family affluence scale (FAS) using standardized questionnaires. Results: A significant increase in VPA was found in low-FAS boys (girls) in four (10) countries and a decrease in four (three) countries. In high-FAS boys (girls), a significant increase was observed in nine (11) countries and a decrease in two(three) countries. An overall significant increase in meeting the VPA recommendations was found in high-FAS boys (OR 1.11; 95% CI 1.06¿1.16) and in all FAS groups in girls, with the largest effect being found among high-FAS girls (OR 1.24; 95% CI 1.18¿1.30). Conclusions: A country-specific increase in VPA was observed primarily in the medium- and high-FAS categories. This study suggests a need to focus on increasing VPA efforts, especially in low- and medium-FAS boys.