© 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Diseases are complex multifactorial processes that occur due to several external factors and/or various underlying internal biochemical and cellular processes. In this chapter, the fine balance between health and disease is discussed with a particular focus on cardiovascular diseases (CVD). CVD are the leading cause of death in developed and Westernized developing countries. A number of environmental, genetic, nutritional, and lifestyle factors have been linked to our health, especially in relation to CVD. These modifiable risk factors may cause or prevent premature mortality. Over the last few decades, with the advancement of industry and technology toward the improvement of food and drug production, medicine, and other anthropogenic activities, amenities have become more available to developed and developing societies. This often leads toward advancement, but does so sometimes to the detriment of human health. With worldwide human advancement, unforeseen challenges that can affect our health have arisen, such as ambient air pollution and contamination of ecosystems, water resources, and food chains. Consequently, sustainable development has been highlighted as a means to moderate the impact of environmental pollution on human health. However, other challenges such as nutrition and lifestyle can be key modifiable factors with a crucial role in health outcomes, especially in CVD. In this chapter, such factors are deliberated at length in relation to existing and emerging public hazards with reference to chronic diseases such as CVD.