Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death globally. Inflammation is central to the pathology of CVD and is present throughout the atherosclerotic process. Unresolved inflammation can lead to atherosclerosis and the subsequent development of CVD that can cause a major cardiovascular event. Lifestyle and nutrition are modifiable risk factors for the prevention of CVD. Research shows that some dietary patterns, such as the Mediterranean diet, are associated with a decreased risk of CVD. Polar lipids, which are found in abundance in foods of the Mediterranean diet, are lipids that possess potent anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic effects against the actions of platelet-activating factor (PAF). PAF is potent phospholipid mediator of inflammation that plays a significant role in all stages of atherosclerosis. Bioactive lipids present in various foods can inhibit the pro-inflammatory activities of PAF via their effects on the PAF/PAF receptor (PAF-R) signaling but also via modulating PAF metabolism toward homeostasis. This chapter reviews the relevant research pertaining to the anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective properties of polar lipids in various foods.