Second-harmonic generation (SHG) is a nonlinear optical process that can provide disease diagnosis through characterization of biological building blocks such as amino acids, peptides, and proteins. The second-order nonlinear susceptibility tensor ¿(2) of a material characterizes its tendency to cause SHG. Here, a method for finding the ¿(2) elements from polarization-resolved SHG microscopy in transmission mode is presented. The quantitative framework and analytical approach that corrects for micrometer-scale morphology and birefringence enable the determination and comparison of the SHG susceptibility tensors of ß- and ¿-phase glycine microneedles. The maximum nonlinear susceptibility coefficients are d33 = 15 pm V-1 for the ß and d33 = 5.9 pm V-1 for the ¿ phase. The results demonstrate glycine as a useful biocompatible nonlinear material. This combination of the analytical model and polarization-resolved SHG transmission microscopy is broadly applicable for quantitative SHG material characterization and diagnostic imaging.